Sugar syrup Processing Technology From Siwalan Palm sap (Borassus flabellifer L.). Nurud Diniyah 1), Simon, B.Widjanarko 2) , Hari Purnomo 2)
1) Alumni Master Programme, Agricultural Product Technology Department, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya.
2) Professor of Postgraduate Programme, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya, Malang.
Siwalan palm sap is taken by cutting flower stalks of Siwalan palm trees. Lokal farmers normally used siwalan palm saps for Legen soft drinks and a traditional siwalan palm brown sugar production. This paper discussed the effect of a time tapping of siwalan trees and an amount of sodium benzoate added in a bottle of collecting siwalan saps. The use of different levels of Brix contents in a sap and concentrated by a vacuum method were also studied. Further studies also comparing the best processing technique by a vacuum method and an open pan method (traditional siwalan palm juices method) on the quality of siwalan sugar syrups were also reported.
Factorial Randomized Block Design was used in the first experiment with tapping time as the first factor and a concentration of sodium benzoate as the second factors and each treatment was replicated 4 (four) times. Randomized Completed Design was used in the second experiments with different levels of Brix content (60º, 65 º, 70 º and 75 ºBrix) as the first factor and each treatment was replicated 6 times. In the third experiments, t test was used to compare the different methods of cooking techniques, which was a vacuum evaporation method and traditional one (open pan method) and each treatment was replicated 10 (ten) times. The experiment was conducted in a sequence manner, where the best treatment from the first experiment was used for the next experiments and so forth.
As it had been predicted that the afternoon time of tapping with concentration of sodium benzoate 0,2%, was found as the best treatment and the juice showed a brightness 41,10; redness 5,80; yellowness 10,43; pH value 6,85; TSS 14ºBrix; reducing sugar 1,20%; CaO residue 292,50 ppm; sodium benzoate residue 38,03 mg/100mL; total microbe 7,58 (log cfu) and organoleptic scores were its colour score 121, taste 117 and aroma 107, respectively. In the second phase, juices with 75º Brix content was found as the best treatment and the product had the value of brightness 34,55; redness 8,83; yellowness 22,35; pH value 6,60; viscocity 6,99 (103 Cp); reducing sugar 7,23%; CaO residue 1060,00 ppm; sodium benzoate residue 26,01 mg/100mL; mold and yeast total 5,20 (log cfu) and organoleptic scores were its colour score 108, taste 110, aroma 98, viscosity 107 and general appearance 103, respectively. At the third stage it was found that Siwalan sugar syrups produced using vacuum method gave a better quality products compared to the traditional method (open pan).
Keyword: Borassus flabellifer, siwalan palm sap, Brix degree, vacuum, open pan, physico-chemicals and organoleptic properties of sugar syrups.